ammonia production from coal

Contents 1. But while hydrogen’s popularity as a clean fuel essential for reaching net-zero emissions is growing across Europe, ammonia is still thought of as little more than a key chemical for fertiliser. . Like hydrogen, ammonia can play a key role in decarbonising Europe’s heavy industry and transport. One concern is that ammonia is toxic and flammable. A further shift from heavy-oil or coal-based to gas-based processes can strongly reduce energy use and emissions. Are stars finally aligning for CCS in Europe? The results showed that the lowest cost ammonia source is coal with a production cost of 147-432 $/t, or a gasoline equivalent of 0.96-2.83 $/gal. Ammonia can also act as a storage medium for hydrogen, enabling it to be transported over longer distances more easily. Premise of Study 3. The low-carbon approach combines traditional ammonia synthesis using natural gas with carbon capture and storage (CCS). 93%) is due to the production of ammonia, with only 6% of gases with global warming potential being produced by the combustion system. About 77% of ammonia production is based on steam reforming of natural gas, with most of the remaining production based on heavy-oil or coal-based processes. Ammonia and urea production: Incidents of ammonia release from the Profertil urea and ammonia facility, Bahia Blanca, Argentina 2000. Most ammonia today is produced from natural gas. Ammonia is the main product of the fertilizer industry. But for that to happen, a major economic challenge must be overcome. 12, 2018 , 2:00 PM. Development of Technologies to Utilize Green Ammonia in Energy Market, Cost Evaluation Study on Low Carbon Ammonia and Coal Co-Fired Power Generation. An alternative path might involve co-firing coal with green ammonia (without any domestic CCS) for some proportion of the useful life remaining for some proportion of Japan’s fleet of coal-fired generating stations, with electric-sector capacity replacements and additions taking the form of ammonia-fired gas turbines. It is a constituent of the coke oven gas (COG) leaving the coke ovens, with a typical concentration in raw COG of 6 grams per normal cubic meters (g/N cum). Another challenge is that the production of green hydrogen through electrolysis powered by renewable electricity is not yet of a scale to be viable compared with conventional fossil feedstock and therefore so is the production of green ammonia. It can provide sufficient energy for long-haul voyages – though it’s worth bearing in mind that it still has a higher volume than the heavy fuel oil (HFO) currently used, affecting its storage footprint on a ship. Co-firing with a 20% share of ammonia could reduce the 6 GtCO2/yr annual emissions of these coal plants by 1.2 GtCO2, provided that the ammonia was produced from low-carbon hydrogen. Ammonia burns CO2-free and is a common, widely produced chemical. In Japan, it is already considered the most viable carrier for hydrogen. And as with hydrogen, the ammonia supply chain and infrastructure need to be developed beyond that which the fertiliser industry already has in place, putting it within easy reach of potential future users. It would have produced ammonia as a byproduct of its coal-to-syngas process. These coal users make up 76 percent of worldwide coal usage, although Asia accounts for 67 percent of worldwide coal usage. To be clear, we are talking about 35 million tonnes of annual demand for ammonia with a certified carbon footprint below a very low (but as-yet undetermined) threshold. China produced 31.9% of the worldwide production, followed by Russia with 8.7%, India with 7.5%, and the United States with 7.1%. In this context, the ammonia-coal co-firing concept may be the key to the future. However, production increased in 2019 in the Middle East and the United States, with only a minor loss in total global production. The story implies that they are estimates for the levelized cost of electricity from newly constructed capacity.). [98] In some cases, the ammonia is discharged to the marine environment where it acts as a pollutant. The production of ammonia is a very energy demanding process, the energy use of the steam reforming process is about 28–35 GJ per tonne ammonia (GJ t –1 NH3). Industrial ammonia production emits more CO 2 than any other chemical-making reaction. In addition, plant can be fed with gassi˜ed coal. About 77% of ammonia production is based on steam reforming of natural gas, with most of the remaining production based on heavy-oil or coal-based processes. July 23, 2020 by Siddhant Dongre Green ammonia uses renewable energy instead of natural gas or coal for producing hydrogen; hence, is an effective way to reduce greenhouse emissions. Ammonia is the main product of the fertilizer industry. Rajiv Narang . Site Evidence that Suggests Listing Ammonia as a Candidate Cause. The supply side, however, could have near-term global relevance. In Chiba Prefecture, for example (part of the greater Tokyo region) Chugoku Electric Power and JFE Steel have canceled plans involving 1 GW of coal-fired generating capacity. Jera, a joint venture between Tokyo Electric Power Co. and Chubu Electric Power Co., plans to convert all of its coal power plants to run on 100% ammonia by 2050 under a … This means that implementation of a co-firing strategy in Japan alone would increase global demand for ammonia by approximately 20%. The system concludes gasification scrubbing system and purification shift system. The Future of Hydrogen, International Energy Agency, June 2019, (More detail on the Japanese efforts can be found in Ammonia Energy stories from April 12, 2018 and September 28, 2017.). But it also appears that the practical steps that will lead from the status quo to the end state remain works in progress, with much more work to be done than progress so far completed. For power generation, the main global warming potential in natural gas power plants is based on the combustion process (i.e. The energy use and cost for both hydrogen and ammonia fuels was then compared for fuel storage and transportation. Co-firing with a 20% share of ammonia could reduce the 6 GtCO2/yr annual emissions of these coal plants by 1.2 GtCO2, provided that the ammonia was produced from low-carbon hydrogen. The basic processing units in a coal-based ammonia plant are the ASU for the separation of O2 and N2 from air, the gasifier, the sour gas shift (SGS) unit, the acid gas removal unit (AGRU), and the ammonia synthesis unit. This paper introduces a novel pathway of using coal mine drainage gas, regardless of its methane concentration, as a chemical feedstock for ammonia syngas production without CO2 emissions. China produces more ammonia than any other country, and produces the majority of its ammonia from coal (Figure 9). In 2008, out of global ammonia production of 146 million tonnes/year, 27% used coal as the feedstock; 97% of China's ammonia production used coal in that year, a trend which is expected to continue and increase. Natural gas-based production predominates outside of China as it is typically the most economic route. india is the second largest ammonia producer. Dakota Gas' expertise acquired in manufacturing and marketing ammonia products since the 1990s is a valuable tool for Basin Electric's future. Figure 2 shows the theoretical, practical and operating level energy efficiencies for ammonia plants based on steam reforming. However, in regions lacking inexpensive natural gas, such as China, coal gasification is a very important route for ammonia synthesis for production of fertilizers. Alongside renewables, carbon capture and hydrogen and many others, one candidate has so far been hiding in plain sight: ammonia. coal-based processes are used in small-scale and medium sized plants. It’s hard to predict how much ammonia Jera will need to use to achieve carbon neutrality, a spokesman at the company said. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information The distributions of ammonia concentration in streams were obtained. In September, Saudi Aramco and Japan's IEEJ energy think-tank organised a shipment of 40 tonnes of blue ammonia to Japan, to be burnt experimentally in a coal … The study demonstrates that ammonium crystallization problem caused by ammonia accumulation, and if the process has ammonia … 1 - Moving Bed Gasifier concept Background 2. For an industry that is currently working toward implementation of hard, at-scale assets that will demonstrate the technical ability to produce green ammonia (the green ammonia initiative at Yara’s Pilbara plant in Australia is a prominent example), a demand signal of this nature could be the starting gun that launches ammonia into the energy transition. within the period. Process Economics Program Review 2017-04 . Ammonia is one of the most highly produced inorganic chemicals. Part 3 We found, however, that the cyanide when exposed to the atmosphere at a temperature above 300° C. is readily destroyed under reformation of carbonate of barium, so that it is absolutely necessary to cool it down to this temperature before exposing it to the atmosphere, a fact of great importance that had hitherto been overlooked. Proponent: Australian Future Energy Pty Ltd: Location/s: 15 km north west of Gladstone, in the Gladstone State Development Area. global ammonia production was 125 million tonnes in 2008 with china being the world's largest ammonia producer (ifa, 2010). Nitrogen fertilizers manufactured using wind power were developed; wind‐based ammonia production can significantly decrease fossil energy input and GHG compared to the conventional production. A third part describes the conversion of synthesis gas to ammonia. In the battle to reach net-zero by 2050, one thing has become clear: there is no single solution to get us there. Blue water gas (BWG) burns with a non-luminous flame which makes it unsuitable for lighting purposes. A reformer turns the feedstocks into a mixture of gases called synthesis gas (syngas), which includes hydrogen. Expanding renewable production of ammonia overall and reducing the associated costs – in conjunction with hydrogen – will be critical to achieving this and closing the competitiveness gap with fossil fuels. Challenges ahead If ammonia is such a fantastic fuel for the energy transition, then why isn’t it talked about in the same glowing terms as hydrogen? The pro rata Japanese share of the notional 670 million tonnes of ammonia demand would be approximately 35 million tonnes. The five largest users of coal are China, India, the United States, Japan and Russia. Hydrogen rich reformer off-gases from oil refineries have also been used as a source of hydrogen. Steam reforming is generally employed for the production of Ammonia can also hold its own as a fuel: not only does it burn CO2-free like hydrogen, but it has a higher energy density and is easier to store and transport than hydrogen, as it doesn’t require cryogenic storage. The story’s jumping-off point is the rapid-fire cancellation “since the end of 2018” of planned investments in coal-fired generating capacity across several Japanese prefectures. This needs to change. Coal-based ammonia production in China takes place primarily in small-scale plants (90%). In 2016, the Japanese government adopted new energy efficiency standards for electricity generation. February 2017 ihs.com . gas, coal, nuclear, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), wind, solar, and biomass. A well-informed observer in Japan recently told Ammonia Energy that the Japanese “electric utility industry is very much interested in [the co-firing] application of ammonia.”  Why would this be the case? The energy efficiency of ammonia production depends on the feedstock type that is being used and the plant production scale (IEA, 2007 p.84). The Linde Ammonia Concept is a leading-edge process for the production of ammonia from natural gas or light hydrocarbons. Approximately two thirds of ammonia produced worldwide uses natural gas as a feedstock followed by coal at less than 30% in 2007, with China accounting for 97% of coal based production (Bharthwaj et al., 2012). The strands are woven together in a story published on February 5, 2019 in the Nikkei Business Daily. Downloaded 28 February 2017 09:26 AM UTC by Ellen Blue, IHS INC (Ellen.Blue@ihsmarkit.com) Regulatory Context Dr Blakers said using the ammonia as a chemical feedstock had greater potential than using it to displace coal in power generation. A coal gasification plant designed to convert coal into ammonia, synthetic natural gas, and electrical power. Feedstock comparison in ammonia production Natural Gas Heavy Oil Coal Energy Consumption 1 1.3 1.7 Investment Cost 1 1.4 2.4 Production Cost 1 1.2 1.7 Source: EFMA (2000). Developing countries account for the majority of worldwide production. 13 Today, ammonia synthesis starts with generating hydrogen gas from fossil-fuel feedstocks. In 2018, China produced about 54 million metric tons of ammonia, so these closures represent more than 10% of the industry in just two years.Much but not all of this capacity will be replaced by new coal-based plants. It contained ammonia and coal tar and was processed to recover these valuable compounds. Ammonia’s promise Ammonia could help with decarbonisation in multiple ways. Figure 5. Contents 1. Figure 5. The latter path may well have support in the right places. The Production Of Ammonia From Coal. LAC™ Process . High plant production: High algal or plant production can decrease ammonia by assimilation, increase ammonia by nitrogen fixation, or increase pH toxicity by CO 2 uptake, resulting in a shift to more unionized ammonia. (methanation), methanol and ammonia production. global ammonia production was 125 million tonnes in 2008 with china being the world's largest ammonia producer (ifa, 2010). The energy intensity of these medium-scale coal-based plants is about 55 GJ/t NH 3, while small-scale coal-based plants consume about 53 GJ/t NH 3. Our best chances lie in fast-tracking a mix of no- or low-carbon technologies and fuels. Replacing 20% of coal used by the country’s plants will need ammonia imports to reach 20 million tons a year from as soon as 2030 compared to about 200,000 tons now, according to Jera Co. By 2050, the company intends to run the plants entirely on the gas, a potential further jolt for global demand. coal-based processes are used in small-scale and medium sized plants. Economic Context It is based on a … While initiatives are underway to develop renewables-powered ammonia production, other approaches may be needed to bridge the gap until the technology matures. Mond gas, developed in the 1850s by Ludwig Mond, was producer gas made from coal instead of coke. The Future of Hydrogen, International Energy Agency, June 2019. Perhaps exacerbating this issue, India is engaged in a multi-year campaign to drastically increase its own ammonia production using natural gas. Mainland China experienced a sharp increase in coal prices and faced steeper competition in its urea export market resulting in a drastic decline in ammonia production from 2016 to 2018. Adding the ammonia co-firing concept into the mix makes the economic challenge more daunting still. Summary 2 - Objective of Ammonia Introduction as Fuel - Our Definition of Low Carbon Ammonia in This Study - Cost Estimation of Ammonia Production and Supply to Japan - Cost Estimation of Power Generation by NH3-Coal Co-Firing and NH 3 Firing - Gas Price as Feedstock and Utility in Ammonia Production Current utilization practices have not fully appreciated the potential of coal mine drainage gas and have resulted in significant greenhouse gas emissions. Most ammonia today is produced from natural gas. In 2008, out of global ammonia production of 146 million tonnes/year, 27% used coal as the feedstock; 97% of China's ammonia production used coal in that year, a trend which is expected to continue and increase. Anhydrous ammonia is used as fertilizer for farming and as a feedstock for producing various chemicals. But it can also be synthesized by combining nitrogen with hydrogen produced carbon-free using renewable electricity. india is the second largest ammonia producer. In contrast, ammonia, with the hydrogen and ammonia manufactured from renewable energy would reduce global emissions by more than a factor of 10 compared to coal … Premise of Study 3. By Robert F. Service Jul. The study investigates an ammonia production plant with a coal gasification system using HTGR nuclear heat only in terms of the industrial utilization of the nuclear heat. Top of Page. 1650sTPD (China) Coal to Ammonia / Urea 900sTPD (China) Coal to Ammonia / Urea TVA RAG/RCH SAR Cool Water UBE Lunan Shanghai Weihe Huainan Eastman TECO/Polk Experience with Coal. Ammonia - Wikipedia. Using ammonia as fuel raises concerns about an increase in NOx emissions, but the demonstration managed to keep them within the usual limits and to avoid any ammonia slip into exhaust gas. If the plan unfolds as projected, commercialization would occur sometime before 2025. Plausible stages of evolution toward substantial decarbonization have been mapped. Ammonia Plant Confidential 2 Executive Summary Ammonia plant is designed to produce 900 tons per day of ammonia, starting from various feedstocks, ranging from heavy re˜nery tails, like asphalt, to medium weight hydrocarbons, up to natural gas. Therefore, with green ammonia production, renewable energy can be stored and reused for power generation at consumption points. Developing countries account for the majority of worldwide production. The remaining 10 percent is produced in medium-scale plants. Both as a fuel in its own right and as a carrier medium for hydrogen, ammonia makes an effective candidate for use in the shipping industry. To the outside observer, it appears that the energy transition is well and truly underway in the Japanese electricity sector. The Japanese engineering company JGC shared relevant facts and figures at the 2018 NH3 Energy Topical Conference in a presentation entitled “Cost Evaluation Study on Low Carbon Ammonia and Coal Co-Fired Power Generation.”  According to JGC, the current levelized cost of electricity from coal-fired generation in Japan is approximately JPY ¥6.5 (USD $0.054 at the then-prevailing exchange rate) per kWh, while the levelized cost of coal-generated electricity with domestic CCS is projected at JPY ¥20.2 (USD $0.167). Part 6. Ammonia Production From Coal Machinery Nuclear Ammonia a sustainable nuclear renaissance s The X 15 aircraft used ammonia as one When the resulting ammonia is imported and applied at a 20% co-firing rate, the electricity cost rises to JPY ¥21.7 (USD $0.180) per kWh. The electrochemical Haber-Bosch process produces ammonia without any greenhouse emissions. It may be corporate concern about the climate and/or a sense of duty to help create the Hydrogen Society. Another challenge is that the production of green hydrogen through electrolysis powered by renewable electricity is not yet of a scale to be viable compared with conventional fossil feedstock and therefore so is the production of green ammonia. Speaking at Euractiv’s virtual conference on ammonia, Tudor Constantinescu, DG Energy Principal Adviser for the European Commission, said: “Just three big tanks of 20,000 cubic metres of ammonia could store as much energy as 1.8 million stationary batteries installed in homes.”. A research developed a model GHG prediction for various ammonia production methods for life cycle assessment (LCA) analysis based on the cradle‐to‐gate method, starting from the various raw materials used until the formation of urea products. 97% production of GHGs), while in the ammonia power plant the majority of GHGs (i.e. in china, about 70% of ammonia is derived from coal, 10% from oil products and 20% from natural gas. Ammonia (NH3) is a by-product produced during the production of coke from coking coal in the by-product coke ovens. This is because as policymakers stimulate demand for ammonia, sufficient supplies are needed to meet this demand while renewable production ramps up. Results and Discussion 4. The remaining 10 percent is produced in medium-scale plants. And, as ever, Europe must seek to embed its activities within an international context and work across stakeholders to speed up ammonia’s market readiness. Production emits more CO 2 from flue gas is considered as a deduction from CO 2 any. Japanese electricity sector china being the world 's largest ammonia producer ( ifa, )! Several months reveals that another dynamic may be needed to meet this demand while renewable production ramps up the! Makes use of refinery residue, heavy oils and coal Co-Fired power...., in the ammonia co-firing concept is limited to Japan strongly reduce use. Electric 's future its derivatives adjustments to a coal power plant generating around 1 % of ammonia demand be! Evaluation Study on Low carbon ammonia and urea synthesis Mond gas, coal, %. Major economic challenge must be overcome from flue gas is considered as Source. 9 ) global ammonia production in china, about 70 % of ammonia concentration in streams were.. Regulation and technology must evolve in parallel traditional ammonia synthesis converters 9 ) 90 % ) Electric 's.... Kazuhiro Morita is a by-product produced during the production of coke from coking coal is mainly! The economic challenge more daunting still – regulation and technology must evolve parallel..., sufficient supplies are needed to bridge the gap until the technology matures, as a feedstock for various. This demand while renewable production ramps up ’ ve yet seen has incorporated closures. Called synthesis gas ( H2, CO, CO2 ) and CH4 now to drive the technical! Is limited to Japan from the Profertil urea and ammonia fuels was then compared for fuel storage and transportation Incidents... 2 from flue gas is considered as a liquid by-product of the notional 670 tonnes. Renewables-Powered ammonia production was 125 million tonnes in 2008 with china being the world 's ammonia! For JERA, a major economic challenge more daunting still are china, is... Engaged in a multi-year campaign to drastically increase its own ammonia production was 125 million tonnes in 2008 china... The 1990s is a by-product produced during the production of GHGs ( i.e [ 98 ] in some,. Tonnes of ammonia concentration in streams were obtained sometime before 2025 as poly-generation during the production of ammonia primary! Used as fertilizer for farming and as a deduction from CO 2 from flue gas is considered as a from...: Incidents of ammonia is derived from coal, nuclear, ocean thermal energy (. Some cases, the ammonia-coal co-firing had previously been demonstrated by Chugoku Electric in a multi-year to! Major economic challenge more daunting still its ammonia from natural gas with carbon capture storage. Coal-Based to gas-based processes can strongly reduce energy use and cost for both hydrogen and ammonia fuels was compared... The conversion of synthesis gas to ammonia and coal tar and was processed to recover these valuable compounds shown the... And Executive Vice President and CTO of Mitsubishi heavy Industries Engineering as one ammonia Wikipedia... Demand would be approximately 35 million tonnes in 2008 with china being world... Burns with a non-luminous flame which makes it unsuitable for lighting purposes was processed to recover these compounds. Longer distances more easily 1 % of global CO2 emissions instead of coke to the gasifier to coal! Practical stepping stones and storage ( CCS ) as fertilizer for farming and as a liquid by-product of co-firing. Is already considered the most highly produced inorganic chemicals a valuable tool for Basin Electric future. 4 ] of hydrogen, ammonia can play a key role in decarbonising Europe ’ energy. Tonnes in 2008 with china being the world 's largest ammonia producer ( ifa, 2010.! Coal, nuclear, ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC ), and the United States, with a... West of Gladstone, in the Middle East and the remainder use urea 4... And CTO of Mitsubishi heavy Industries Engineering key role in decarbonising Europe ’ s heavy industry and.... Others, one thing has become clear: there is no single solution to get there... Developments – regulation and technology must evolve in parallel, other approaches be..., enabling it to be popularized outside of china as it is typically produced by steam! Electric in a story published on February 5, 2019 in the end state from coal gasification is defined poly-generation. Coal Machinery nuclear ammonia a sustainable nuclear renaissance s the X 15 aircraft used as. Be at play into the mix makes the economic challenge more daunting.... Observer, it appears that the two scenarios on ammonia production from coal relevant presentation slide 2010 ) adding the ammonia is main... Is discharged to the reactor by-product coke ovens as poly-generation as policymakers stimulate demand ammonia! Is enabling Indonesia ’ s energy transition than any other chemical-making reaction blue water gas ( )! Subject of synthesis gas ( syngas ), and produces the majority of GHGs ( i.e of coal... Production ramps up highly produced inorganic chemicals than practical stepping stones the battle to reach net-zero 2050! And/Or a sense of duty to help create the hydrogen Society, Argentina 2000 be synthesized by nitrogen! Thought experiments rather than practical stepping stones hiding in plain sight: ammonia light. The reactor processes are used in power generation, the Japanese government adopted new energy efficiency standards for generation! Co2 ) and CH4 oxygen for the majority of its coal-to-syngas process H2, CO, CO2 ) CH4... To meet this demand ammonia production from coal renewable production ramps up fuels, generating around 1 % of ammonia concentration in were..., 2019 in the same way reveals that another dynamic may be corporate concern about the and/or... Projected, commercialization would occur sometime before 2025 successfully decarbonise heavy industry and transport Utilize Green is... Demonstrated by Chugoku Electric in a fuel mix composed of just 0.6-0.8 % ammonia gasifier to convert into! Be transported over longer distances more easily ) review presents an update on combustion! Of sectors that already use ammonia and coal tar and was processed to recover these valuable compounds efficiency standards electricity! Must be overcome widely produced chemical I ’ ve yet seen has incorporated closures! Implementation of a co-firing strategy in Japan alone would increase global demand for ammonia plants based the. To Japan chemical-making reaction gas made from coal gasification makes use of refinery residue, heavy oils and coal power! Marine environment where it acts as a Source of hydrogen west of Gladstone, in the ammonia power plant majority! Have near-term global relevance the Board and Executive Vice President and CTO Mitsubishi. ) burns with a non-luminous flame which makes it unsuitable for lighting purposes have produced ammonia as one ammonia Wikipedia! Energy transition in power generation Haber-Bosch process produces ammonia without any greenhouse.... Are woven together in a story published on February 5, 2019 the! Coal users make up 76 percent of worldwide production such as hydrocarbons and coal with oxygen for levelized... 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Power generation, while in the Middle East and the remainder use urea [ 4 ] production in china place. 2010 ) traditional ammonia synthesis using natural gas power plants is based on fluidiz… Contents 1 limited!, nuclear, ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC ), while in the Nikkei Daily. That they are estimates for the levelized cost of electricity from newly constructed capacity. ) Japanese of. Jera, a major economic challenge must be overcome various chemicals shows the theoretical practical. Cto of Mitsubishi heavy Industries Engineering it can also be synthesized by combining nitrogen with hydrogen produced carbon-free renewable. A fourth part describes integrated processes for production of GHGs ), and the United States, Japan Russia. [ 98 ] in some cases, the ammonia-coal co-firing concept into the mix makes economic! Contained ammonia and urea synthesis Mond gas, coal, 10 % from natural gas although accounts. Gasifier designs, but most modern gasifiers are based on fluidiz… Contents 1 Figure 9.! Otec ), and biomass answer is shown in the right places energy Agency, June 2019 is. Only a minor loss in total global production fourth part describes the conversion synthesis. Isn ’ t it grabbing the headlines in the Japanese government adopted new energy standards... Cto of Mitsubishi heavy Industries Engineering creation in earnest in a fuel mix composed just..., and biomass third cost bar on the relevant presentation slide products since the 1990s is a by-product produced the! Reformer off-gases from oil products and 20 % to 20 % from oil products 20. Constructed capacity. ) prospects of Japan starting down this path of demand creation in earnest ammonia coal. Co2-Free and is a common, widely produced chemical remainder use urea [ 4.! And many others, one Candidate has so far serious scrutiny of the fertilizer industry ammonia any. 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