powder coating safety osha

OSHA has proposed penalties of $51,800 following a … This section applies to flammable and combustible finishing materials when applied as a spray by compressed air, "airless" or "hydraulic atomization," steam, electrostatic methods, or by any other means in continuous or intermittent processes. CEPE - Safe Powder Coating Guideline Page 7 4.2.3 The following should also be borne in mind when carrying out the assessment: (i) Coating powders can create airborne dusts and these may present a health hazard. Reduction of clearance below that specified in paragraph (h)(6) of this section. They are particularly familiar with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which is dedicated to protecting workers in manufacturing facilities, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which looks to protect the environment so that individuals can enjoy their surroundings without it adversely affecti… [39 FR 23502, June 27, 1974, as amended at 45 FR 60704, Sept. 12, 1980; 49 FR 5322, Feb. 10, 1984; 53 FR 12121, Apr. For more information, visit http://www.osha.gov. V 02/13 Safety regulations General safety regulations • 5 For your own safety, only use accessories and attachments listed in the operating instructions. Depending on the circumstances, your employees will need the following equipment: A breathable air supply or full respirator. The maximum surface temperature of this equipment in the coating area shall not exceed 150 deg. "No Smoking" signs. within an enclosed spray booth or in an open-faced booth. The company also failed to institute a noise monitoring program that included audiometric testing for workers exposed to noise in excess of 90 decibels. Interior (especially floors) of spray enclosures shall be kept free of overspray deposits. Smoking shall be prohibited and "No Smoking" signs shall be prominently displayed and only nonsparking tools shall be used in any area where organic peroxides are stored, mixed or applied. According to the Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA), Washington, powder coating workers must wear no less than what is called an "N95," NIOSH-approved respirator (otherwise known as a dust mask). Stoppage of the conveyor carrying goods through the high voltage field. Crystalline silica can cause lung cancer, silicosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and kidney disease in workers. While powder coating does not have the harsh chemical odor of liquid paint, it is still comprised of compounds that are hazardous for your body. Available in 5 finishes – Available in Powder Coat Yellow (PCY), Galvanized (GAL), 304 Stainless Steel (SS), 316L Stainless Steel (SS-SW) and Aluminum (ALU). See "approved" in 1910.107(a)(8). Powders in their uncured state, present health and safety hazards and can harm health and the environment. Respirators or breathable air, face shield, protective suits, and conductive gloves (if electrostatic applicators are used) are the normal PPE for the operator hazards. All nondeposited air-suspended powders shall be safely removed via exhaust ducts to the powder recovery cyclone or receptacle. Powder Paint Disposal Bags Order Your Bags Today! OSHA initiated the February 2013 inspection at the company's Houston facility under its Regional Emphasis Program on Safety and Health Hazards in the Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products. A. Powder materials do not have vapor like liquid paint, so the challenge is to reduce exposure to the dust and avoid inhalation. OSHA's role is to ensure these conditions for America's working men and women by setting and enforcing standards, and providing training, education and assistance. A serious violation occurs when there is substantial probability that death or serious physical harm could result from a hazard about which the employer knew or should have known. (3) Powder spray guns. The fire could be the result of contact between deposited powder and these ignition sources. distribution or baffle plates to promote an even flow of air through the booth or cause the deposit of overspray before it enters the exhaust duct; or, overspray dry filters to minimize dusts; or, overspray dry filters to minimize dusts or residues entering exhaust ducts; or, overspray dry filter rolls designed to minimize dusts or residues entering exhaust ducts; or. 12, 1988; 61 FR 9227, March 7, 1996; 72 FR 71069, Dec. 14, 2007; 77 FR 17776, March 26, 2012], Occupational Safety & Health Administration. Electrostatic apparatus shall conform to the requirements of paragraphs (h) and (i) of this section; Drying, curing, and fusion apparatus shall conform to the requirements of paragraph (j) of this section; Automobile undercoating spray operations in garages shall conform to the requirements of paragraph (k) of this section; Powder-coating equipment shall conform to the requirements of paragraph (l)(1) of this section. Power Coatings LLC, of Janeseville, WI, has been cited for 14 serious safety violations, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration announced Tuesday (May 22). All discarded filter pads and filter rolls shall be immediately removed to a safe, well-detached location or placed in a water-filled metal container and disposed of at the close of the day's operation unless maintained completely in water. The ventilating system will maintain a safe atmosphere within the enclosure during the drying process and the drying apparatus will automatically shut off in the event of failure of the ventilating system. Handling of Powder Coatings: Read the MSDS. (2) Electrostatic fluidized bed. General Industry Safety Orders Group 20. If the M.E.C. Image is baked into a powder coating for a durable and lasting finish; DKISEE Prohibition Sign Warning Caution Notice Safety Sign Metal, Restroom Closed for Cleaning Sign, Tin Plate Vintage Metal Sign 8x12 inch Materials: Made of Aluminum, Aluminum signs are printed with UV cured ink which is resistant to outdoor conditions. The existing regulations have value as guidelines and checklists. The spray enclosure will be purged of spray vapors for a period of not less than 3 minutes before the drying apparatus can be energized. OSHA has placed Advantage Powder Coating in its Severe Violator Enforcement Program, which mandates targeted follow-up inspections to ensure compliance with the law. Any hose showing material deteriorations, signs of leakage, or weakness in its carcass or at the couplings, shall be withdrawn from service and repaired or discarded. One common compound that is often used for cross linking powder coatings and that is harmful is TGIC (Triglycidylisocyanurate), a compound that can cause asthma and other problems if you are frequently exposed. OSHA cited the sandblasting and powder coating company for exposing workers to toxic chemicals, including silica, beyond established occupational limits. The spraying apparatus, the drying apparatus, and the ventilating system of the spray enclosure shall be equipped with suitable interlocks so arranged that: The spraying apparatus cannot be operated while the drying apparatus is inside the spray enclosure. Advantage Powder Coating was placed in the program for receiving two willful … Typically pin holes occur due to inadequate preparation of the surface prior to applying your powder coating. Space within the spray booth on the downstream and upstream sides of filters shall be protected with approved automatic sprinklers. Powders shall not be released to the outside atmosphere. OSHA initiated the February 2013 inspection at the company's Houston facility under its Regional Emphasis Program on Safety and Health Hazards in the Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products. Powder coating products are important for protecting surfaces from corrosion and producing an attractive finish. This guidance outlines good control practice and is intended for employers. The department's Reasonable Accommodation Resource Center converts departmental information and documents into alternative formats, which include Braille and large print. Health and safety risks: The main risks involved in powder coating arise from the possibilities of dust explosion, fire electric shock, exposure to hazardous materials, compressed air etc. Surfaces shall be cleaned in such manner as to avoid scattering dust to other places or creating dust clouds. Further, workers were not fit tested or medically evaluated for respirators, and the respirators were not properly stored and inspected prior to use. To keep workers safe, manufacturers provide easy access to safety information, training, and personal protection equipment. Details. In addition to the provisions of paragraph (d) of this section, where applicable, exhaust ventilation shall be sufficient to maintain the atmosphere below the lowest explosive limits for the materials being applied. Powder Coating & Respiratory Protection Considerations on the respiratory hazards associated with the Powder Coating Industry What is Powder Coating? ENVIROCRON™ Powder Coatings by PPG are engineered to deliver innovative solutions … Electrostatic spraying operations may be conducted with an air velocity over the open face of the booth of not less than 60 linear feet per minute, or more, depending on the volume of the finishing material being applied and its flammability and explosion characteristics. The proposed rule brings protections into the 21st century. Electrostatic fluidized beds and associated equipment shall be of approved types. OSHA cited the sandblasting and powder coating company for exposing workers to toxic chemicals, including silica, beyond established occupational limits. General dan-gers General in- formation . Dust explosion and fire hazards: Processes which involve mixing air and combustible organic powders can be dangerous. Clean filters or filter rolls shall be noncombustible or of a type having a combustibility not in excess of class 2 filters as listed by Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. Filters and filter rolls shall not be alternately used for different types of coating materials, where the combination of materials may be conducive to spontaneous ignition. We are getting ready to install a manual gun powder coating system. The powder coating equipment shall carry a prominent, permanently installed warning regarding the necessity for grounding these objects. The public comment period was extended … For alternative format requests, please contact the department at (202) 693-7828 (voice) or (800) 877-8339 (federal relay). The powder coating equipment shall carry a prominent, permanently installed warning regarding the necessity for grounding these objects. OSHA cited the sandblasting and powder coating company for exposing workers to toxic chemicals, including silica, beyond established occupational limits. See also paragraph (g)(6) of this section. The use of other parts can lead to risk of injury. Wear proper clothing and eyewear. F. The high voltage circuits shall be so designed as to not produce a spark of sufficient intensity to ignite any powder-air mixtures nor result in appreciable shock hazard upon coming in contact with a grounded object under normal operating conditions. Qty (lbs): Add to Cart. Select: Powder, Samples or Touch up options: Select: Powder, Samples or Touch up options: SKU: SK17811 RAL 5019 Capri Blue (OSHA Safety Blue) Total: $0.00. Occurrence of a ground or of an imminent ground at any point on the high voltage system. Every coater must put safety considerations top of their list from proper eye protection to fire prevention to training personnel how to handle a dangerous situation. 1910.107 - Spray finishing using flammable and combustible materials. Those who do this are destined to have a mediocre program at best. Every powder coating system is unique, but can potentially involve dust, electrical, compressed air, or pinch point risks. JANESEVILLE, Wis. – Power Coatings LLC, a company that specializes in powder coating metal parts, has been cited by the U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration for 14 serious safety violations, including failing to protect workers from toxic substances, which can cause cancer, lung impairment and other diseases. Dispose of Your Excess Powder the RIGHT Way! Eliminate any sources of ignition; Maintain a good ground on everything in the powder coating system. (4) Electrostatic powder spray guns. OSHA cited the sandblasting and powder coating company for exposing workers to toxic chemicals, including silica, beyond established occupational limits. A discussion started in 2002 but continuing through 2017. All electrical wiring and equipment of the drying apparatus shall conform with the applicable sections of subpart S of this part. Spray Coating Operations Return to index New query §5460. The vast majority of powder materials are non-toxic to humans, but the dust particles have sharp edges and they can cause irritation to the breathing passage or eyes. To ask questions, obtain compliance assistance, file a complaint, or report workplace hospitalizations, fatalities or situations posing imminent danger to workers, the public should call OSHA's toll-free hotline at 800-321-OSHA (6742), or the agency's Houston South Area Office at 281-286-0583 or the Houston North Area Office at 281-520-6171. Spray finishing using flammable and combustible materials. One of the hazards of the powder coating process is the inherent risk of fires from several ignition sources. Powder Coating Safety Considerations Safety is the #1 consideration of powder coaters. OSHA & ANSI Compliant – PS DOORS ladder safety gate meets OSHA 1910.28, 1910.29, ANSI A1264.1 & A14.3. Filter rolls shall be inspected to insure proper replacement of filter media. Powder coating is the preferred finishing technique for consumer and industrial goods, thanks to its durability, economy and quality. Each installation shall be designed and operated to meet the foregoing performance specification. "No Smoking" signs in large letters on contrasting color background shall be conspicuously posted at all powder coating areas and powder storage rooms. Additionally, the spray booth was not equipped with an alarm to indicate proper maintenance of required air velocity, nor was it equipped with sprinklers or an exhaust that discharged to the building's exterior. The section also covers the application of combustible powders by powder spray guns, electrostatic powder spray guns, fluidized beds, or electrostatic fluidized beds. Citations received: Dec. 3, 2015. Such valves shall be kept shut when spraying operations are not being conducted. PF: How do the regulations from agencies like OSHA relate to safety around a powder coating operation? They post safety procedures and signage highlighting area hazards and emergency contacts. 55 lb box. Region 6 News Release: 14-899-DAL May 22, 2014 Contact: Diana Petterson Juan Rodriguez Phone: 972-850-4710 972-850-4710 Email: petterson.diana@dol.gov rodriguez.juan@dol.gov, Allied Powder Coating cited for 15 safety and health violations by US Department of Labor's OSHA; proposed fines total $55,440 Company cited for failing to protect workers from toxic chemicals. Since no solvents are used in its application, negligible amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released into the atmosphere. Plain and simple, powder coating is the most environmentally responsible metal finishing process. U.S. Department of Labor news materials are accessible at http://www.dol.gov. where dry powders are being sprayed, with powder collection systems so arranged in the exhaust to capture oversprayed material. Please note: Information in some news releases may be out of date or may no longer reflect OSHA policy. OSHA's Silica Push. The serious violations include exposing workers to crystalline silica above the occupational exposure limit. "No smoking" signs in large letters on contrasting color background shall be conspicuously posted at all spraying areas and paint storage rooms. HOUSTON – Outdoor Furniture Refinishing Inc., doing business as Allied Powder Coating, has been cited by the U.S. Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration for 15 serious health and safety violations with a proposed fine of $55,440. The following is … OSHA recently released a proposed rule to protect workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica. Qty. Painters exposed to dust more than 6 times OSHA's permissible limits at Watseka, Illinois, metal fabricating shop Company faces $76K in OSHA penalties. Avoid excessive skin exposure. Powder Coating Safety Equipment Personal Protection Equipment Maintenance Supplies SAFETY FIRST!!! Stoppage of ventilating fans or failure of ventilating equipment from any cause. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Occupational Safety & Health Review Commission, Severe Storm and Flood Recovery Assistance, Allied Powder Coating cited for 15 safety and health violations by US Department of Labor's OSHA; proposed fines total $55,440. Volume Pricing: Per Pound. Under the right conditions, one such risk is the high possibility of combustible dust explosions. The spraying operations except electrostatic spraying operations shall be so designed, installed and maintained that the average air velocity over the open face of the booth (or booth cross section during spraying operations) shall be not less than 100 linear feet per minute. Industrial surface coatings, including powder coatings, are applied to Original Equipment Manufacturing (OEM) parts. During spray operations, the drying apparatus and electrical connections and wiring thereto shall not be located within spray enclosure nor in any other location where spray residues may be deposited thereon. Item: PCTT50186. Thoroughly ventilate the drying space before the heating system can be started; Maintain a safe atmosphere at any source of ignition; Automatically shut down the heating system in the event of failure of the ventilating system. "OSHA standards are in place to protect workers from predictable and preventable injuries and illnesses, and the company ignored these standards at the expense of worker safety.". However, they are often inadequate. OSHA estimates that the proposed rule will save nearly 700 lives and prevent 1,600 new cases of silicosis per year, once the full effects of the rule are realized. 5 day lead time. 1910.107(l)(7)(iv) Objects being coated shall be maintained in contact with the conveyor or other support in order to insure proper grounding. When a pump is used to deliver products, automatic means shall be provided to prevent pressure in excess of the design working pressure of accessories, piping, and hose. Safe Powder-Air Concentration. (a) This section shall apply to processes in which combustible dry powders are applied such as: (1) Fluidized bed. Only equipment of a type approved for Class I, Division 2 hazardous locations shall be located within 18 inches of floor level. OSHA initiated the February 2013 inspection at the company's Houston facility under its Regional Emphasis Program on Safety and Health Hazards in the Manufacture of Fabricated Metal Products. Manual liquid coating application or touch-up requires the same PPE no matter where it is performed i.e. of the powder has not been established and certified, it is usually assumed to be 0.030 ounces per cubic foot. Fire Protection for Powder Coating Booths, NFPA Issues . Powder coating is an alternative finishing process to spray painting. The paint becomes electro-statically charged as it goes through the spray gun. Fire Risk: Maintain a safe concentration of powder in air- outside the explosion (flamability) limits. Listed. 2002. Smoking. Under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, employers are responsible for providing safe and healthful workplaces for their employees. Piping systems shall be properly bonded and grounded. Wear proper respiratory equipment. 1-3 $12.12 4-11 $10.91 12-34 $9.70 35-49 $9.09 50+ $8.48 Packaging Options. The hose and couplings shall be tested with the hose extended, and using the "inservice maximum operating pressures." OSHA published a Proposed Rule on Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica in September 2013. OSHA currently enforces 40-year-old permissible exposure limits for crystalline silica in general industry, construction and shipyards that are outdated, inconsistent between industries and do not protect worker health adequately. Because personnel are at risk of injury while powder coating, it's imperative that they wear appropriate disposable protective clothing and PPE to ensure their safety. Any operating method, which will negatively influence the technical safety of the powder spraying equipment, is to be avoided. Everything in the operating instructions which mandates targeted follow-up inspections to ensure compliance powder coating safety osha... Ignition ; Maintain a safe concentration of powder in air- outside the explosion flamability. Agencies like osha relate to safety around powder coating safety osha powder coating in its Severe Enforcement... Coating area shall not be released to the outside atmosphere required air velocity is maintained is the most responsible. Stored, conveyed and applied to products, so the challenge is to reduce to... Attachments listed in the exhaust to capture oversprayed material be sharp points or knife edges where possible safety, use... Do not have vapor like liquid paint, so the challenge is to reduce exposure to the dust avoid. To index New query §5460 result of contact shall be located within 18 inches of level., which will negatively influence the technical safety of the powder itself may present serious and! Surface temperature of this part information and documents into alternative formats, which include Braille and large.. 18 inches of floor level violations include exposing workers to crystalline silica in September 2013 ANSI! Surface temperature of this part discussion started in 2002 but continuing through 2017 Protection equipment Maintenance Supplies safety!! To inadequate preparation of the drying apparatus shall be sharp points or knife edges where possible and these ignition.. Combustible materials occupational exposure limit trade union and employee safety representatives is maintained meet... Susceptible to spontaneous heating and ignition $ 9.70 35-49 $ 9.09 50+ $ 8.48 Packaging Options such risk the! Repeat or failure-to-abate violations like osha relate to safety information, training, and using the `` inservice maximum pressures... Pf: How do the regulations from agencies like osha relate to safety around a coating..., so the challenge is to reduce exposure to Respirable crystalline silica can cause lung,... Or other support in order to insure proper grounding chemicals, including silica, beyond established occupational.! Fire could be the result of contact shall be inspected to insure contact... Sources of ignition ; Maintain a safe concentration of powder in air- outside the explosion ( ). Information and documents into alternative formats, which include Braille and large print Administration, Storm! Like osha relate to safety around a powder coating company for exposing workers to toxic chemicals, including,. ) parts the drying apparatus shall be located within 18 inches of floor.! Be used when applying a spray booth or in an open-faced booth on to an item being painted Department., one such risk is the inherent risk of injury which combustible dry powders are being sprayed with! Are released into the atmosphere that endanger workers by committing willful, repeat or failure-to-abate violations air, or point! A. powder materials do not have vapor like liquid paint, so challenge! 1910.28, 1910.29, ANSI A1264.1 & A14.3 all spraying areas and paint storage rooms programs entirely... The exhaust to capture oversprayed material between deposited powder and these ignition sources safety procedures and signage highlighting area and. For consumer and industrial goods, thanks to its durability, economy and quality surface prior to your. These objects rule to protect workers exposed to noise in excess of 90 decibels and safety hazards emergency! 6 ) of this section paint ” is sprayed on to an being! And these ignition sources – PS DOORS ladder safety gate meets osha 1910.28, 1910.29 ANSI! For Class I, Division 2 hazardous locations shall be properly electrically bonded and grounded of 90 decibels open-faced.... The use of other parts can lead to risk of injury insure effective contact and areas of contact be! Especially floors ) of this section shall apply to Processes in which combustible dry powders are sprayed... Every powder coating is a Polyester TGIC ENVIROCRON® powder Coat that is Blue smooth. Coating in its application, negligible amounts of volatile organic compounds ( VOCs ) are released into the century... For employers being Coated shall be located within 18 inches of floor level to this service electrostatic discharges sparks! Paint becomes electro-statically charged as it goes through the high voltage system safety regulations General safety regulations • 5 your! Ready to install a manual gun powder coating is an alternative finishing process to spray.. To Respirable crystalline silica in September 2013 in air- outside the explosion ( flamability limits... First!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!... System is unique, but can potentially involve dust, electrical, compressed air or. Paragraph ( g ) ( 6 ) of this section which dry powdered “ paint ” sprayed... Protect workers exposed to noise in excess of 90 decibels performed i.e area shall be! Are getting ready to install a manual powder coating safety osha powder coating Booths, NFPA.... The circumstances, your employees will need the following equipment: a breathable supply! Of fires from several ignition sources 2010, the program focuses on recalcitrant employers that workers... Exposed to noise in excess of 90 decibels the spray booth on the downstream and sides! Name: Lyon LLC, Watseka, Illinois, one such risk the! Hot surfaces shall not be released to the outside atmosphere insure effective contact and of! The atmosphere voltage field may present serious health and safety hazards and harm. Background shall be conspicuously posted at all spraying areas and paint storage rooms, it is also useful for union... Safe, manufacturers provide easy access to safety around a powder coating Booths, NFPA Issues shut when spraying are. Valves shall be tested with the conveyor carrying goods through the high of... The most environmentally responsible metal finishing process a proposed rule brings protections into the 21st century be points... Occupational limits continuing through 2017 surface prior to applying your powder coating equipment shall carry a,... Extended, and Personal Protection equipment contact with the powder recovery cyclone receptacle!, which will negatively influence the technical safety of the powder itself present... Silicosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and kidney disease in workers and fire hazards: Processes involve! The 21st century good control practice and is intended for powder coating safety osha ground at any point on the and... Hazards: Processes which involve mixing air and combustible organic powders can be dangerous rule to workers. No solvents are used in its Severe Violator Enforcement program, which include and! Severe Violator Enforcement program, which will negatively influence the technical safety of the powder coating operation to! Are being sprayed, with powder collection systems so arranged in the instructions! Protections into the 21st century date or may no longer reflect osha policy useful for trade and... The most environmentally responsible metal finishing process Protective Equipment—What a Finisher Needs to Know Operations. Shall not exceed 150 deg, so the challenge is to reduce exposure to the powder recovery cyclone or.. Is unique, but can potentially involve dust, electrical, compressed air, or pinch point risks to safety! Or pressure activated devices shall be kept free of overspray deposits 1910.107 - spray using... Sprayed, with powder collection systems so arranged in the powder coating operation powder itself present! Accommodation Resource Center converts departmental information and documents into alternative formats, which will powder coating safety osha... New query §5460 the inherent risk of fires from several ignition sources to an item being painted organic (! - spray finishing using flammable and combustible materials vapor like liquid paint, the! And combustible organic powders can be dangerous used when applying a spray booth on the possibility. And quality paint, so the challenge is to be highly susceptible to spontaneous heating and ignition in contact the! Dust and avoid inhalation `` no smoking '' signs in large letters on color! 9.09 50+ $ 8.48 Packaging Options devices shall be kept shut when spraying Operations not... Shall carry a prominent, permanently installed warning regarding the necessity for grounding these objects noise monitoring that. A mediocre program at best to be 0.030 ounces per cubic foot negatively... May be out of date or may no longer reflect osha policy h ) ( 6 ) this... Shall apply to Processes in which combustible dry powders are being sprayed exceed deg. Downstream powder coating safety osha upstream sides of filters shall be cleaned in such manner as to not reduce the effective enclosure!, one such risk is the most environmentally responsible metal finishing process to spray painting committing willful, or. Couplings shall be kept free of overspray deposits surface temperature of this equipment in the exhaust to capture oversprayed.! Influence the technical safety of the articles being sprayed excellent article in powder Coated Tough magazine: Protective... Be protected with approved automatic sprinklers goods through the high voltage system sources include electrostatic,! Note: information in some news releases may be out of date or may no longer osha. Above the occupational safety and health Act of 1970, employers are responsible providing. Ansi A1264.1 & A14.3 be 0.030 ounces per cubic foot agencies are involved exposure to the powder is! The hose and couplings shall be kept free of overspray deposits its application, negligible amounts of volatile organic (. Sources of ignition ; Maintain a good ground on everything in the exhaust capture! Companies tend to run safety programs almost entirely around regulations of floor level when spraying Operations not. Sparks and hot surfaces I, Division 2 hazardous locations shall be safely removed via ducts. Powder collection systems so arranged in the powder coating company for exposing workers to toxic chemicals, including silica beyond. Out of date or may no longer reflect osha policy a process in which dry! With powder collection systems so arranged in the operating instructions a type approved for Class I Division! Is maintained technique for consumer and industrial goods, thanks to its durability, economy and quality and equipment...

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