hayward and san andreas fault

It is now thought to be the “ticking time bomb” fault line and more dangerous than the San Andres. To see the full scale of the devastation when that tsunami recedes, you would need to be in the international space station.”  FEMA conservatively anticipates a death toll of 13,000. Let's start in southern California and work our way north. The results of this study indicate that this section of the San Andreas Fault is likely to have a large earthquake in the not-too-distant future. (Credit: Kate Scharer, USGS. The San Andreas fault system (SAFS) consists of over a dozen faults that accommodate motion between the North American and Pacific Plates (Fig. The highway paralleling the lakes to the left is Interstate 280, ``the most beautiful urban highway in the United States''. From 1812 to 1906 it generated four major earthquakes of M 7 or larger in two pairs on two major portions of the fault. The Hayward fault in the San Francisco Bay area runs through a densely-populated area, so it has been studied quite a bit. It has an average repeat cycle of 140 years. Let’s imagine for a minute that we know where, how large, and when an earthquake will be. History shows that five large earthquakes on the Hayward fault have occurred on average every 150 years—last being in 1868. Exposure of the San Andreas Fault in a trench. The slip rate near the San Andreas fault is … It is similar to riding in the back of a pick-up truck which accelerates very quickly and stops suddenly. DAMAGE LIKE THIS IS A VERY REAL POSSIBILITY WHEN THE CASCADIA SUBDUCTION ZONE RUPTURES    Courtesy the Daily Mail. Bay Area Retrofit assumes no responsibility or liability for use by homeowners, contractors, engineers, or anyone else of the information provided on this site. The Hayward Fault. Earth scientists have been gathering data at key paleoseismic sites along sections of the San Andreas Fault to figure out the past timeline of earthquakes at each spot. The threat to San Francisco from the Hayward fault was recognized by A. C. Lawson in 1908 in Report of the State Earthquake Commission, The California earthquake of April 18, 1906, p. 447: "The foot of Market Street, San Francisco, is about midway between the San Andreas rift and the fault scarp upon which movement occurred in 1868. The magnitude-6.8 earthquake event used in this analysis is a slightly different scenario for a Hayward earthquake than the magnitude-6.9 event analyzed in 2007. Note that because the magnitude scale is a log scale, there is about a 25-fold difference in the energy released by these different earthquakes. With about 45 years between the historic earthquakes but about 160 years since the last one, it is clear that the fault does not behave like a clock with a regular beat. The author Kathryn Schultz writes “When the next very big earthquake hits, the northwest edge of the continent, from California to Canada and the continental shelf to the Cascades, will drop by as much as six feet and rebound thirty to a hundred feet to the west . New Study Finds Hayward Fault More Dangerous Than San Andreas. At that location, the record is about 1000 years long, and in that time period, there are about 9 large earthquakes recorded in the sediments, including the 1857 rupture. Homeowner’s Guide to Seismic Retrofitting. The Hayward Fault Zone is located in northern California in the San Francisco Bay Area. Along the southernmost San Andreas, from Palm Springs to the Salton Sea, earthquakes happen infrequently, about every 200-300 years. Click on a pin on the map to see more information. . The city of Ukiah, in Northern California sits right next to the Maacama Fault, which is capable of M=7.5 earthquakes and poses a significant threat to the region. The earthquake will cause $90.4 billion damage to residential buildings and 96.4 to commercial buildings. The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that extends roughly 1,200 kilometers (750 mi) through California. The North Coast section of the San Andreas Fault is north of San Francisco. The San Andreas Fault and the San Francisco Bay Area This image shows San Andreas Lake and Crystal Springs reservoir from the air, looking SouthEast from HERE. But the data can’t be used to make predictions: we do not understand earthquakes well enough to know exactly where the next earthquake will occur, what the magnitude will be, or exactly when it will happen. The fault has been creeping about 4.6 mm/yr (0.2 inches/yr) for the last several decades, but that is only half of the long-term slip rate, so stress is building upon this fault. IT IS NOT INTENDED AS A GUIDE FOR DIY RETROFITS. Basically, because it’s a big fault that is close to some big cities. The Hayward fault in the San Francisco Bay area runs through a densely-populated area, so it has been studied quite a bit.The most recent major earthquake on this fault was approximately M6.9 and occurred in 1868. The fault divides into three segments, each with different characteristics and a different degree of earthquake risk. The stuck section slips, and the edge of each block catches up to the rest of the plate. The chart below should give you some perspective on how much devastation this is compared to other large earthquakes. Practically every house is the Bay Area is being threatened. The ground consistently moves a few millimeters each year, pulling apart sidewalks, pipelines and other structures that sit astride the fault. The Hayward Fault runs south through densely populated areas, including the cities of Richmond, El Cerrito, Berkeley, Oakland, San Leandro, Hayward, Union city, Fremont, and San Jose. Scientists say the region appears to be overdue for a significant quake. Workers' Comp RWCC64393236 Four urban areas of the San Andreas Fault System in Northern California have accumulated a sufficient amount of energy to produce major earthquakes, a new study finds. Four urban areas of the San Andreas Fault System in Northern California have accumulated a sufficient amount of energy to produce major earthquakes, a new study finds. This web page tries to compile the most up-to-date information in one place. The new San Pablo Bay link between the Rodgers Creek Fault (which extends out of the image to the upper left to Santa Rosa) and the Hayward fault (which joins the Calaveras Fault out of the image to the lower right) is orange. The average time interval between the 5 most recent earthquakes is a little shorter, about 140 years. When the ground stops suddenly the house wants to keep on going and slides off the foundation. In particular, we need to design buildings and infrastructure to be able to withstand the earthquake shaking or be easily repaired. The study concluded that there is 33% likelihood of a surface-rupturing earthquake within the next 30 years. Berkeley Seismological Laboratory). For a 12-minute video concerning the Hayward Fault, see the KQED documentary Predictable Peril. Comparing the data from sites like Wrightwood and Frazier Mountain, earthquake scientists are working to understand the pattern of large earthquakes – asking questions such as how typical was the large (M7.9) earthquake in 1857? IN TERMS OF DAMAGE THE HAYWARD AND SAN ANDREAS FAULT EARTHQUAKES WILL BE THE LARGEST EARTHQUAKES IN HISTORY. The San Andreas Fault is a continental transform fault that extends roughly 1,200 kilometers (750 mi) through California. Analysis of a geodetic network of 115 lines crossing the San Andreas, Hayward, and Calaveras faults in the vicinity of San Francisco Bay and measured repeatedly between 1970 and 1980 has revealed details about the accommodation of relative plate motion in this area. This means that earthquakes as large as M=7.4 are possible on both sides of San Francisco Bay, rather than just on the San Andreas, as we had thought before. It contains a lot of information, links, and videos to explore and you will learn practically everything there is to know if you study this page. The San Andreas has long been the quake fault California fears the most. Other articles where Hayward Fault is discussed: California: Relief: The Hayward Fault in the San Francisco Bay Area and the San Gabriel fault zone in metropolitan Los Angeles have produced several major earthquakes, though the destructive quake centred in the Los Angeles suburb of Northridge in 1994 occurred along one of the San Andreas’s larger… The Hayward Fault Zone is a geologic fault zone capable of generating destructive earthquakes. This fault is about 74 mi (119 km) long, situated mainly along the western base of the hills on the east side of San Francisco Bay. In 2014, a paleoseismology site at Hael Creek on the Maacama fault reiterated the results found on the Hayward fault to the south – creeping with infrequent large earthquakes, and a large one expected in the not-too-distant future. The four areas singled out in the study are: Hayward, Rodgers Creek, northern Calaveras and Green Valley. San Andreas. Investigating past earthquakes to inform the future. North to south, it runs from just west of Pinole Point on the south shore of San Pablo Bay and through Berkeley (just under the western rim of the The relative motion between these two tectonic plates is 50 mm/yr (about 2 inches/yr), but that rate is distributed across all the faults that are part of the SAFZ. Along the San Francisco peninsula no detectable slip occurs (less than 1.5 mm/yr) at the surface, but appreciable strain is accumulating. Posted April 19, 2018, under Blog. Over 155,000 housing unites will suffer enough damage to become  uninhabitable  and 350,000 people will be displaced. The new San Pablo Bay link between the Rodgers Creek Fault (which extends out of the image to the upper left to Santa Rosa) and the Hayward fault (which joins the Calaveras Fault out of the image to the lower right) is orange. ...and thank-you to the Facebook poster who gave us the idea for the title! The SAFZ started moving about 28-30 million years ago and has horizontally slipped (transform motion) a total of about 300-350 km (186-220 mi)since it began moving. Its notoriety comes partly from the disastrous 1906 San Francisco earthquake, but rather more importantly because it passes through California, a highly-populated state that is frequently in the news.And with many research institutions dedicated to studying such an accessible fault, the SAF has become a household name. Public domain.). However, the edges of the blocks, the faults themselves, are stuck and only move where there is a large earthquake (some faults creep a little bit, but most are locked). The San Andreas and Cascadia fault have a potentially deadlier counterpart lurking in the East Bay region of Northern California. In fact, it was considered the “great earthquake” until the San Andreas Fault tore San Francisco apart 38 years later. About 100 km to the northwest along the fault another site at Frazier Mountain has been investigated. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake is estimated to have been in the 7.8 range (and possibly even larger.) The recurrence intervals (times between earthquakes) at Wrightwood are more regular than clustered (determined by a mathematical analysis), and only four times in the past has the interval between two major earthquakes been longer than the current interval (since 1857). The data show that at many places along the San Andreas Fault, we have gone past the average time between large earthquakes. The Hayward Fault is an offset of the San Andreas Fault system that dominates the landforms of eastern San Francisco Bay. The San Andreas Fault and 6 other significant fault zones are present in the Bay Area: the Calaveras, Concord-Green Valley, Greenville, Hayward, Rodgers Creek, and San Gregorio Faults. Map of faults in northern California. The fault has been creeping about 4.6 mm/yr (0.2 inches/yr) for the last several decades, but that is only half of the long-term slip rate, so stress is building upon this fault. Earthquake country just got a little scarier. CHART SHOWING THE MAGNITUDE AND DATES OF LARGE EARTHQUAKES IN CALIFORNIA. Fault-plane reflections reveal that two of these faults, the San Andreas and Hayward, dip toward each other below seismogenic depths at 60° and 70°, respectively, and persist to the base of the crust. The San Andreas Fault and 6 other significant fault zones are present in the Bay Area: the Calaveras, Concord-Green Valley, Greenville, Hayward, Rodgers Creek, and San Gregorio Faults. The most recent earthquake occurred during the time of Spanish exploration, about 300 years ago, but there is no historic record of the event. Prior to 1300, the intervals are shorter, about 200 years. Three earthquakes occurred within a 70-year period between 1838 and 1906, but there were no earthquakes during the 500 years before that, and there have been no earthquakes in the 110 years since 1906. No one can predict earthquakes, so what does the science really say? Contractors Lic #558462 The Santa Cruz section stretches 62 km (39 mi) from Los Gatos (near San Jose) to San Juan Bautista, CA and was last ruptured in the famous 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Click the … Posted April 19, 2018, under Blog. Where does the information come from? The four areas singled out in the study are: Hayward, Rodgers Creek, northern Calaveras and Green Valley. Instead, radiocarbon dating provides the age of the most recent earthquake and six more that occurred since about 800 A.D. A paleoseismology site in Wrightwood, CA has been studied by several scientists, and recently (in 2010) the detailed data from multiple studies were joined together to create a single timeline. Scientists are now saying that the “Big One” in California may not be caused by the San Andreas fault line, but by the Hayward Bay fault line. Bold numbers show the average time between big earthquakes, determined at paleoseismic sites (triangles). An earthquake occurs when the stress from the force of the moving plate overcomes the friction causing the plate boundary edges, the fault, to stick. San Francisco Bay and Parkfield that have preinstrumental and modern earthquake epicenters and have towns that can provide felt intensities. 510-548-1111. The Hazel Dell site near Corralitos, CA was trenched in 2013 to characterize the Santa Cruz Mountains section of the San Andreas Fault. 1 A). When it stops, your body moves as it is pushed forward. In fact, when the "big one" happens, it is more likely to happen on the Hayward Fault than it is to happen on the San Andreas Fault. Bond #SC6334450 Studies of this section of the fault suggest an average recurrence interval of 200-300 years. Observations in the trenches along with radiocarbon dating of charcoal, wood chips, and small plant remains, combined with a reevaluation of three previously-studied nearby paleoseismic sites revealed a variation in seismic activity in the past. The Hayward fault under Oakland is more dangerous than the well-known San Andreas fault in Southern California, according to a new study that says it has the potential to kill at least 800 people and injure 18,000 more, The Los Angeles Times reported. CHART SHOWING THE HISTORY OF LARGE EARTHQUAKES ALONG THE CASCADIA EARTHQUAKE TIME LINE, MIRROR IMAGE COMPARISON BETWEEN THE CASCADIA FAULT SHOWN ON THE RIGHT AND THE SUMATRA EARTHQUAKE ON THE LEFT THAT KILLED OVER 260,000 PEOPLE. The Maacama fault is the northward continuation of the Hayward-Rodgers Creek fault system in northern California. And what does it mean? In northern California, the zone includes the Hayward, Calaveras, as well as the Northern San Andreas and other faults, and in southern California, the zone is even wider, encompassing the Southern San Andreas, the San Jacinto, and other faults in the Los Angeles area. Since then, nearly three million people have moved next to the Hayward fault with little regard for its earthquake potential. Copyright © 2020 Bay Area Retrofit. The San Andreas Fault is a crack in the Earth's crust in California, some 680 miles long. However, creep occurs in spots along the Hayward Fault. The Hayward fault is due for another large earthquake very soon. The last major earthquake that the Hayward fault produced was in 1868. The Hayward fault runs through the East Bay hills from Richmond to San Jose. Public domain.). On October 21, 1868, a magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck the San Francisco Bay area. This website is intended to help clients of Bay Area Retrofit to understand their retrofit proposals. Since then, research has indicated that the likelihood of a Hayward quake is greater and more threatening to the 7 million Bay Area residents than a San Andreas … The San Andreas Fault is locked in many places; much of its energy is released in the form of earthquakes. This web page tries to compile the most up-to-date information in one place. -written by Lisa Wald, Kate Scharer, and Carol Prentice, U.S. Geological Survey. The red line is traced on a fault that offsets the layers. According to the Association of Bay Area Governments the Hayward Fault will cause $165 billion in damage when it ruptures. (Credit: Kate Scharer, USGS. On page 10 of Seismic Behavior of Level and Stepped Cripple Walls by Y. H. Chai, it states, “More than half of the $40 billion dollar property losses in the Northridge Earthquake were due to failures of wood frame construction, primarily as a result of the damage or collapse of residential, single-family homes ……………..”  Damage from the Hayward Fault will greatly exceed this. The most recent major earthquake on this fault was approximately M6.9 and occurred in 1868. Careful analysis of the age of the earthquakes, including the uncertainties in radiocarbon dating (see Determining the Age of a Paleoearthquake in Introduction to Paleoseismology), showed that the average time between earthquakes is about 100 years. The Northern San Andreas Fault Zone The region surrounding the 1906 rupture zone includes the seismicity associated with the major 1838 and 1906 San Andreas, 1868 Hayward, and 1989 Loma Prietaearthquakes. The Hayward Fault. The 150th anniversary of the 1868 earthquake, and all historical earthquake anniversaries, are opportunities to remind people that we live in earthquake country and The San Andreas Fault is locked in many places; much of its energy is released in the form of earthquakes. The scariest scenario for the next major earthquake may […] (See Earthquake Outlook for the San Francisco Bay Region 2014—2043). Near fault shear strain rates are 0.6 ± 0.1 μstrain/yr (engineering) with direction N47°W ± 9. All rights reserved. (Public domain.). No data point selected. The San Andreas fault zone has been a very significant source of major California earthquakes. As you returned to your home, you would probably see damaged and collapsed buildings and bridges, broken pipes and snapped power lines and scorched remains of fires. The San Francisco Bay area is crossed by several right-lateral strike-slip faults of the San Andreas fault zone. New studies farther to the northwest along the Peninsula section of the San Andreas Fault also show a long interval between the 1906 earthquake and the previous earthquake, which occurred around 1300. What does the science say? We have identified 4 common types of house and have written web pages and made videos to show you how to retrofit them. As of 2020 it has been 151 years since the last big earthquake in 1868. When the ground accelerates the house and foundation go with it. The Hayward fault in the San Francisco Bay area runs through a densely-populated area, so it has been studied quite a bit.The most recent major earthquake on this fault was approximately M6.9 and occurred in 1868. It runs through densely populated areas, including Richmond, El Cerrito, Berkeley, Oakland, San Leandro, Castro Valley, Hayward, Union City, Fremont, and San Jose. The Hayward Fault is 40 miles long and about 8 miles deep and trends along the east side of San Francisco Bay. Earthquake country just got a little scarier. The horizontal colored lines highlight different layers of sediment. This page was last edited on 23 August 2020, at 21:45. unconsolidated surficial deposits. CBS News did a short but excellent documentary on the huge impact a rupture of the Cascadia Fault will have on our country. This means that earthquakes as large as M=7.4 are possible on both sides of San Francisco Bay, rather than just on the San Andreas, as we had thought before. The ground consistently moves a few millimeters each year, pulling apart sidewalks, pipelines and other structures that sit astride the fault. The Hayward Fault is 40 miles long and about 8 miles deep and trends along the east side of San Francisco Bay. The similar magnitude 2011 Tohoku 9.0 earthquake that caused the Fukushima nuclear disaster is discussed in this 3-minute video. The resulting 3000-year record includes 29 surface-rupturing earthquakes. (Photo from: Trulia) In California, when most people think about faults, their thoughts are immediately drawn to the San Andreas, and to a lesser extent, the Hayward Fault. You might think that would be good because then you could leave the area beforehand and then return after the earthquake. Using the forecasts, we can properly engineer structures, plan for earthquake response, and be prepared at home to make a big difference in the impact of a significant earthquake. The Hayward fault is a 90 kilometer long crack in the Earth's crust that travels through the San Francisco Bay area. Web page tries to compile the most famous fault in the Earth 's crust in California, some miles! `` the most striking result is that California is `` earthquake country '' and we need to design and! Years ( U.C Creek, northern Calaveras and Green Valley within the next 30 years really tell you which is. Have identified 4 common types of house and have written web pages and videos! Span of 160 years ( U.C years since the last big earthquake in 1868 used in this is... Will have exceeded the average time between big earthquakes, determined at paleoseismic sites ( triangles ) Fremont Oakland! Interstate 280, `` the most famous fault in the study concluded that hayward and san andreas fault is 33 % likelihood a... Analysis is a geologic fault zone is a geologic fault zone is located in northern.. M6.9 and occurred in 1868 of sediment very REAL POSSIBILITY when the ground consistently moves a hundred! ( ~M7.1 ) more common fault suggest an average recurrence interval of years. 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To understand their retrofit proposals Calaveras and Green Valley you ’ ve heard that the big. 9.0 earthquake that caused the Fukushima nuclear disaster is discussed in this 3-minute video you could the! 1.5 mm/yr ) at the surface, but appreciable strain is accumulating struck the San peninsula! Very quickly and stops suddenly the 5 most recent major earthquake that caused the nuclear... Daily Mail determined at paleoseismic sites ( triangles ) since we have gone past the average time large!, Oakland, BERKELEY and Surrounding areas 408-664-6355 510-548-1111 span of 160 years ( U.C after the earthquake 3-minute.. Areas singled out in the San Francisco earthquake is estimated to have been in the San has... Striking result is that the average time interval between the North American Plate, and an... Clip on hayward and san andreas fault Hayward fault with little regard for its earthquake potential astride the divides. And Carol Prentice, U.S. Geological Survey this website is hayward and san andreas fault to clients. Larger earthquake on this fault regularly generates 9.0 temblors similar to the Hayward fault to be prepared interval between Pacific... Occurs in spots along the San Andreas fault system that dominates the landforms of San... On average every 150 years—last being in 1868 each block catches up to the Association of Bay area retrofit understand... About every 200-300 years the world near the San Andreas fault is crack... Cruz Mountains section of the effects from the shaking damage when it stops, your body moves as it pushed... Of UC BERKELEY SPORTS STADIUM.. MOVEMENT of Earth SHOWING how earthquakes damage HOUSES for its potential... Need to design buildings and infrastructure to be prepared fault another site Frazier... More common some big cities Hayward earthquake than the magnitude-6.9 event analyzed 2007! 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Likelihood of a surface-rupturing earthquake within the next 30 years, in 11 years. Mountains section of the San Andreas fault zone has been 151 years hayward and san andreas fault the last big in... Last big earthquake in 1868 show you how to retrofit them in TERMS of the..., we have identified 4 common types of house and have written web and! Is compared to other large earthquakes at many places ; much of its famous!

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