article about computer security risk

Although initial NIST guidance on risk management published prior to FISMA’s enactment emphasized addressing risk at the individual information system level [4], the NIST Risk Management Framework and guidance on managing risk in Special Publication 800-39 now position information security risk as an integral component of enterprise risk management practiced at organization, mission and business, and information system tiers, as illustrated in Figure 13.1. A list of some of these is given in Section 5.1. Computer programs are the first line of defense in computer security, since programs provide logical controls. A vulnerability is a “weakness in an information system, system security procedures, internal controls, or implementation that could be exploited by a threat source.” Information system vulnerabilities often stem from missing or incorrectly configured security controls (as described in detail in Chapters 8 and 11Chapter 8Chapter 9Chapter 10Chapter 11 in the context of the security control assessment process) and also can arise in organizational governance structures, business processes, enterprise architecture, information security architecture, facilities, equipment, system development life cycle processes, supply chain activities, and relationships with external service providers [17]. This lack of attention to security measures, coupled with an increase in investment by attackers, means that application attacks are likely to remain a significant risk … Examples are risk of profit or loss; uncertainty regarding the organization’s goals as it faces its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats; and risk of accident, fire, crime, and disasters. Twenty-four experts in risk analysis and computer security spent two and a half days at an invited workshop and concluded that there are nine areas where significant problems exist which currently limit the effectiveness of computer security risk analysis. Information Security Management can be successfully implemented with an effective information security risk management process. Federal risk management guidance relies on a core set of concepts and definitions that all organizational personnel involved in risk management should understand. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, Digital Forensics Processing and Procedures, Security Controls Evaluation, Testing, and Assessment Handbook (Second Edition), Resilience, Risk Management, Business Continuity, and Emergency Management, Security and Loss Prevention (Sixth Edition), Computer and Information Security Handbook (Third Edition), The context establishment process receives as input all relevant information about the organization. Additional roles that can be explicitly defined are those of the risk assessor and of the security risk manager. Frequent computer crashes. According to a new ASPI paper, one provider holds 54% of … Information security risk management is the systematic application of management policies, procedures, and practices to the task of establishing the context, identifying, analyzing, evaluating, treating, monitoring, and communicating information security risks. Types of Computer Security Risks 5. Evidence from the security firm CrowdStrike suggests that companies that sell software on behalf of Microsoft were used to break into Microsoft’s Office 365 customers. Cyber News - Check out top news and articles about cyber security, malware attack updates and more at When developing risk acceptance criteria, the organization should consider business criteria, legal and regulatory aspects, operations, technology, finance, and social and humanitarian factors. To the extent that organizational risk managers can standardize and enforce common definitions and risk rating levels, the organization may be able to facilitate the necessary step of prioritizing risk across the organization that stems from multiple sources and systems. Journal of Computer Security is a peer-reviewed journal. All sites have some policy, of course. We commonly think of computer viruses, but, there are several types of … Likelihood in a risk management context is an estimate of the chance that an event will occur resulting in an adverse impact to the organization. When you arm yourself with information and resources, you’re wiser about computer security threats and less vulnerable to threat tactics. Leighton Johnson, in Security Controls Evaluation, Testing, and Assessment Handbook (Second Edition), 2020. Risk assessors use these factors, in combination with past experience, anecdotal evidence, and expert judgment when available, to assign likelihood scores that allow comparison among multiple threats and adverse impacts and—if organizations implement consistent scoring methods—support meaningful comparisons across different information systems, business processes, and mission functions. Developing impact criteria involves considering the level of classification of the impacted information asset; breaches of information security; impaired operations; loss of business and financial value; disruption of plans and deadlines; damage to reputation; and breach of legal, regulatory, or contractual requirements. Attack Bharath Reddy Aennam (1079250) New York Institute of technology Professor: Leo de Sousa INCS 618 - Computer Security Risk Management and Legal Issues 04th Oct 2015 Contents Abstract 4 Introduction: 5 Key Terms: 5 Risk: 5 Threat: 6 Encryption and Decryption 6 Encryption: 7 RISK MANAGEMENT FRAME … The IT security team is responsible … IT Security, also known as Computer Security is defined as information security when applied to technology (Hardware and Software). Senior leaders that recognize the importance of managing information security risk and establish appropriate governance structures for managing such risk. The Annualized Loss Expectancy (ALE) calculation allows determination of the annual cost of a loss due to a given risk. Financial risk management protects the financial assets of a business from risks that insurers generally avoid. Risk Analysis (RA) helps to ensure that an organization properly identifies, analyzes, and mitigates risk. Depending on the circumstances faced by an organization, the sources of information security risk may impact other enterprise risk areas, potentially including mission, financial, performance, legal, political, and reputation forms of risk. Risk is conceptualised as the triplet, value, threat and vulnerability, but operationalised as the product, the expected value, to support the decision-making. In qualitative or semi-quantitative risk analysis approaches such as the method prescribed in Special Publication 800-30, likelihood determinations focus less on statistical probability and more often reflect relative characterizations of factors such as a threat source’s intent and capability and the visibility or attractiveness of the organization as a target [6]. Perhaps the most well-known computer security threat, a computer virus is a program written to alter the way a computer operates, without the permission or knowledge of the user. 90% of security safeguards rely on an individual ("YOU") to adhere to good computing practices 10% of security safeguards are technical. Unexplained data loss. A sophisticated cyberattack breached multiple government agencies and major private companies, and no one noticed for months. Mehta writes that although much has been written about ERM, not all organizations have embraced the concept and some prefer the term “risk management” because adding “enterprise” creates a distraction about its meaning while managing risk is the important goal. Clifton L. Smith, David J. Brooks, in Security Science, 2013. “Security risk management provides a means of better understanding the nature of security threats and their interaction at an individual, organizational, or community level” (Standards Australia, 2006, p. 6). NIST provided explicit examples, taxonomies, constructs, and scales in its latest guidance on conducting risk assessments [12] that may encourage more consistent application of core risk management concepts, but ultimately each organization is responsible for establishing and clearly communicating any organization-wide definitions or usage expectations. IJICS is a double-blind refereed, authoritative reference addressing development of information/computer security in information technology, political science, informatics, sociology, engineering and science. System owners and agency risk managers should not use this narrow scope to treat information security risk in isolation from other types of risk. Prioritization of security activities may not be directly informed by organizational risk objectives, the threat environment, or business/mission requirements. The concept of enterprise risk management can be especially helpful with multinational businesses because of a multitude of threats and hazards. Impact is a measure of the magnitude of harm that could result from the occurrence of an adverse event. Likewise, managers ideally need to make trade-offs to ensure due protection of corporate assets while optimizing worker efficiency. With policy, you can know what it is you need to do, and take the necessary steps to ensure your goals are achieved. This chapter provides an overview of all the important factors related to risk management and information security. Risk is “a measure of the extent to which an entity is threatened by a potential circumstance or event” typically represented as a function of adverse impact due to an event and the likelihood of the event occurring. The Persistence of Risk measurement is indicative of the quality and consistency of security risk management processes. In many respects, it is better to have a policy and no firewall rather than firewall and no policy. Sometimes policy can be inferred: For example, many sites adopt an “arbitrary network traffic can go out; only a specified set of traffic—mail to the mail server, Web clients to the public Web server can go in as a default information flow-control policy. Computer Security Risk Management And Legal Issues 1573 Words | 7 Pages. Impact ratings significantly influence overall risk level determinations and can—depending on internal and external policies, regulatory mandates, and other drivers—produce specific security requirements that agencies and system owners must satisfy through the effective implementation of security controls. Here, security risk analysis is used to assist in protecting critical process infrastructure. These may be of a political, cultural, or strategic nature; they may be territorial, organizational, structural, functional, personnel, budgetary, technical, or environmental constraints; or they could be constraints arising from preexisting processes. Security risk management process. Indeed, it’s best to make policy short. Basic criteria include risk evaluation, impact, and risk acceptance. 2020-12-07T17:49:00Z. Take these steps to safeguard your PC with the best computer virus protection: Effective execution of risk management processes across organization, mission and business, and information systems tiers. Why? While positive or negative impacts are theoretically possible, even from a single event, risk management tends to focus only on adverse impacts, driven in part by federal standards on categorizing information systems according to risk levels defined in terms of adverse impact. Organizations express risk in different ways and with different scope depending on which level of the organization is involved—information system owners typically identify and rate risk from multiple threat sources applicable to their systems, while mission and business and organizational characterizations of risk may seek to rank or prioritize different risk ratings across the organization or aggregate multiple risk ratings to provide an enterprise risk perspective. Risk management is a subjective process, and many of the elements used in risk determination activities are susceptible to different interpretations. Most people only need those Ten Commandments. 6 biggest business security risks and how you can fight back IT and security experts discuss the leading causes of security breaches and what your organization can do to reduce them. Because risks frequently are uncorrelated (i.e., all of them causing loss in the same year), insurance costs are lower. Preparation, monitoring key to combating third-party cyber-security risk. In its guidance, NIST reiterates the essential role of information technology to enable the successful achievement of mission outcomes and ascribes similar importance to recognizing and managing information security risk as a prerequisite to attaining organizational goals and objectives. This is a broad concept that protects all employees and those linked to them (e.g., family and customers). People probably have some expectations: That their PC will turn on in the morning, that they can access their e-mail without it being distributed to competitors, that the file they were working on yesterday will still be there and contain the same information when they closed the application. Is it acceptable to receive personal e-mail on your corporate account? These threats include kidnapping, extortion, product contamination, workplace violence, and IT sabotage. The output of the context establishment process is the specification of these parameters. This article is concerned with the limitations evident in the current security risk models (iii)) used by international agencies to assess the security environments associated with conflict zones. These two key elements will be discussed further in this chapter and are mentioned at various points throughout this book with respect to specific protection applications. Kevin E. Peterson, in The Professional Protection Officer, 2010. really anything on your computer that may damage or steal your data or allow someone else to access your computer For emergent vulnerabilities, security personnel may consider factors such as the public availability of code, scripts, or other exploit methods or the susceptibility of systems to remote exploit attempts to help determine the range of potential threat agents that might try to capitalize on a vulnerability and to better estimate the likelihood that such attempts could occur. Key roles in this organization are the senior management, the chief information officer, the system and information owners, the business and functional managers, the information systems security officers, the IT security practitioners, and the security awareness trainers (security/subject matter professionals). Better understanding among individuals with responsibilities for information system implementation or operation of how information security risk associated with their systems translates into organization-wide risk that may ultimately affect mission success. Leimberg et al. Another approach is to let the firm’s management in each country make the insurance decision, but this means that the corporate headquarters has less control of risk management. Where necessary, there can be a security Bible, which provides more detailed guidance, and provides documentation on security control configuration or security architecture strategies, but policy, at its best, should be holistically integrated into the people, processes, and technology that provides secure business information flow. ASPI warns Canberra about security risk with current data centre procurement approach. NIST Defines an Integrated, Iterative Four-Step Risk Management Process That Establishes Organizational, Mission and Business, and Information System-Level Roles and Responsibilities, Activities, and Communication Flows [11]. is the 90%. Managing information security risk at an organizational level represents a potential change in governance practices for federal agencies and demands an executive-level commitment both to assign risk management responsibilities to senior leaders and to hold those leaders accountable for their risk management decisions and for implementing organizational risk management programs. Disgruntled former or current employees, for example, may leak information online regarding the company's security or computer system. Morris (2001: 22–30) writes about overseas business operations, risks, and the need for answers to specific questions about each country in which business will be conducted. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. … Does the host government have a record of instability and war, seizing foreign assets, capping increases in the price of products or adding taxes to undermine foreign investments, and imposing barriers to control the movement of capital out of the country? Establishing the context for information security risk management determines the purpose of the process. Vulnerabilities & Threats Information security is often modeled using vulnerabilities and threats. ERM seeks to combine event and financial risk for a comprehensive approach to business risks. No organization can provide perfect information security that fully assures the protection of information and information systems, so there is always some chance of loss or harm due to the occurrence of adverse events. This guidance also proposes a similar five-level rating scale for the range or scope of adverse effects due to threat events, and provides examples of adverse impacts in five categories based on the subject harmed: operations, assets, individuals, other organizations, and the nation [19]. Erratic computer behavior. It provides the statement of goals and intent that the security infrastructure is designed to enforce. Michael Pack, the head of the U.S. Agency for Global Media, is moving to stop federal funding of the Open Technology Fund, which develops tools that allow people to get around controls on internet access. The 2019 report contains security risks that illustrate the importance, if not urgency, of updating cybersecurity measures fit for 4IR technologies. Steps to safeguard your PC with the best computer virus protection: journal of computer security, attack! 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