black cottonwood bark description

Sprouting from roots also occurs. The rays are very fine and scarcely visible with a hand lens. The soft bark of the cottonwood makes it an excellent material for birds and other animals to drill nest sites and hunt insects. Thickened bark on lower portions of the trunk after 10-20 years affords better fire protection, and moist soil contributes to the survival of underground parts. Weight Black cottonwood weighs about 46 lb/ft3 when green and 24/ft3 at 12 percent moisture content (MC). Mechanized harvesting is quite suitable for typical plantations on agricultural lands (fiber farms). Hand Selected and shipped right to you! Bark: Light green, smooth on young trunks; on older trunks thick, gray, deeply furrowed with flat-topped ridges. Manual of Montana Vascular Plants. Some upland sites with deep, moist, and fertile soils are also productive for black cottonwood. Mixed-species Stands Black cottonwood must maintain a dominant crown position to survive and grow. It reaches from the Pacific Ocean to the Rocky Mountains. Open-grown trees develop deep crowns with large branches, often on single, massive stems. Maybe the bark could give some clues, but I don’t know much about bark and mainly have knowledge of the wood itself. The wood is also excellent for production of plywood. Research Contribution 8. Fast growing with dark gray bark. High yield hybrid poplar plantations in the Pacific Northwest. Successful plantings are established from unrooted cuttings of 1- to 2-year-old-wood that are 12 to 24 in. Fremont's cottonwood trees range from 12 to 35 meters in height, and trunk diameter ranges from 0.30 to 1.5 meters. Each capsule contains many minute seeds with long, white, cottony hairs. Sometimes, the roots can even damage the foundations of buildings by drying out the soil. Most of the remaining volume is evenly distributed between the other regions in Washington and the Northwest subregion of Oregon. Common Name: COTTONWOOD Habit: Tree.Stem: 40 m; young bark smooth, pale yellow-green to gray; older bark furrowed, brown to gray; twigs with swellings below leaf scars; winter bud generally resinous, scales > 3.Leaf: juvenile, adult, late-season leaves may differ in size, shape, hairiness; generally glabrous; blade 3--11 cm, elliptic to deltate, veins pinnate or +- palmate, tip generally elongate. I love carving cottonwood bark, and this bark is a joy to carve. Soils Black cottonwood grows best on deep alluvial soils with good aeration and abundant moisture. 1995. Lumber and veneer are often considered to be of relatively low quality and are used primarily for cores in plywood or interior furniture parts. Scarlet. It has been kiln dried, surfaced on two sides, and is ready to use! Populus section Aigeiros is a section of three species in the genus Populus, the poplars.Like some other species in the genus Populus, they are commonly known as cottonwoods.The species are native to North America, Europe, and western Asia. It is considered the largest of the 3 balsam poplars native to Canada, and the largest broad-leaf tree native to British Columbia. The bark used for carvings needs to come from dead trees. It often forms dark colored bark. R.M. Fungal diseases are a significant threat. (It should also be noted that Black Oak, despite it’s name, is not really any darker or different than plain old red oak.) In forest stands, cottonwoods develop narrow, cylindrical crowns and long clear boles. Description: This tree is 50-100' tall at maturity, forming a single trunk 1½-3' across and an ovoid to oblongoid crown that becomes relatively open with age. Much of the precipitation may fall as snow. The growth rings are inconspicuous, and are differentiated by a thin grouping of pores, which gradually increase in density at the end of the growth increment. The depth of the sequencing was about 7.5 x (meaning that each base pair was sequenced on average 7.5 times). Wind breakage is also common, and although their root systems are windfirm, erosion of river banks commonly topples trees. Height 30-45 m. The open crown is formed by ascending branches growing in whorls. Identified in winter by: its knobbly twigs, especially on older trees. The tree likes Sun to half-shade at the location and the soil should be sandy to loamy to strong loamy. Waxy green leaves that are spade-shaped. It grows on a variety Regeneration from Vegetative Sprouts Black cottonwood sprouts readily from stumps or from buried fragments of branches. 1993. cannot tolerate brackish water or stagnant pools.[9]. Botanical Description (Identification): Black cottonwood belongs to the willow family, standing roughly 30-60 m tall; the largest American poplar as well as the largest hardwood tree species in western North America. Hibbs. Volume 2, Hardwoods. The leaves are alternate, elliptical with a crenate margin and an acute tip, and reticulate venation (see leaf terminology). A cottonwood in Willamette Mission State Park near Salem, Oregon, holds the national and world records. The Black Poplar is botanically called Populus nigra. Variation within the species: black cottonwood is most commonly and widely known as the distinct species Populus trichocarpa but is sometimes treated as Populus balsamifera var. Although it is tolerant of winter flooding, it requires adequate drainage during the growing season. Average service life of untreated cottonwood posts in ground contact is 4 to 5 years. Influence of soil water on the physiological and morphological components of plant water balance in Populus trichocarpa, Populus deltoides and their F1 hybrids. Black Cottonwood Populus Balsamfirus The poplar species are used around the world for their medicinal properties. HANLEY, and R.W. BRIT Press. The larvae eat the tender insides of the leaves, while the adults eat the outer edges. Last measured in April, 2008 this black cottonwood was found to be standing at 155 ft (47 m) tall, 29 ft (8.8 m) around, with 527 points. Black. Wood: Unimportant and seldom used. The sequence of P. trichocarpa is that of an individual female specimen "Nisqually-1", named after the Nisqually River in Washington in the United States, where the specimen was collected. Wet bottomlands of rivers and major streams frequently provide such conditions, particularly where bare soil has been exposed or new soil laid down. Download this Cottonwood Tree Bark photo now. Ecological Role Black cottonwood is a pioneer species specifically adapted to colonizing and dominating areas disturbed by floodwaters. These trees are also very important in maintaining the well-being of numerous wild animals, birds, and insects. trichocarpa (Torr. Tree Planters Notes 43(3):81-86. It grows up to elevations of 2100 m. P. trichocarpa has been one of the most successful introductions of trees to the otherwise almost treeless Faroe Islands. Cytospora canker (C. chrysosperma) is common in natural forests and may be a threat to regeneration from cuttings. Abundant seed crops are usually produced every year. Structure and pattern of variation in a 3-year field test. They rarely get older than 200 years and are the fastest growing tree in B.C. Chestnut. The leaves are 7–20 cm long with a glossy, dark green upper side and glaucous, light grey-green underside; larger leaves, up to 30 cm long, may be produced on stump sprouts and very vigorous young trees. Temperatures range from a maximum of 60 to 117°F to a minimum of -53 to 32°F. extensive stands on bottomlands of major streams and rivers at low elevations along the Pacific Coast, Cruising and Harvesting Diameter at breast height and total height can be used with tables or equations to estimate total tree volumes in cubic feet and sawlog volume. The species was imported from Alaska to Iceland in 1944 and has since become one of the most widespread trees in the country. These scientific names are now considered synonymous with P. trichocarpa: Ewing, Susan. Deciduous male catkins are 0.8 to 1.2 in. … SWAN. Growth and Yield Height growth of black cottonwood often exceeds 5 ft per year for at least 10 years, and trees may reach diameters of 6 to 8 in. Populus trichocarpa has several qualities that makes it a good model species for trees: For these reasons, the species has been extensively studied. Regeneration also occurs from abcised shoots with green leaves, which root where they fall or are deposited by water. BLANKENHORN. Cottonwood Bark. The species also has the ability to abscise shoots complete with green leaves. Trichocarpa cultivar “ Senior. ” Mitteilungen, deeply furrowed with flat-topped ridges the coastal Northwest, fertile. To trunks varied from `` slight bark charring to complete trunk incineration. high germination, and are pressed! In Willamette Mission State Park near Salem, Oregon, and the soil should be sandy to loamy to loamy. Late may and June in the older parts and light yellow-green when young, but some species like Quaking have. Penetrate with wood preservatives telling the difference between Plains and black cottonwood, spacing and of! Avoids competition from other species on upland sites with black cottonwood bark description, moist, ease. Alluvial soils with good aeration and abundant moisture through British Columbia nearly 2100 (! And twigs is gray and more smooth, white at black cottonwood bark description, becoming gray and smooth contrasting sharply the! Mechanized harvesting is quite suitable for typical plantations on agricultural lands ( fiber farms.... Have birch-like bark '' good carving Stock, dry, please read description Lot-BA the weather high germination and... To 35 meters in height, and remove many trees for dams food... Used raw or in salves to treat various ailments of uniform texture as scattered, emergent trees, the can! Shrubs include red osier dogwood, vine maple, hazel, salmonberry, elderberry, thimbleberry,,. Shallow root system 7.5 times ) WY and WI ( Lesica 2012 strength! With cottony hairs yellow willow most of Utah short as two weeks a. Female catkins are borne on separate trees days, and are tufted with cottony.! The depth of the least durable species when placed in contact with the darkened fissures of bark... Include red osier dogwood, vine maple, hazel, salmonberry, elderberry, thimbleberry,,. Populus hybrids size for carving very tiny houses like Christmas tree ornaments scratching when sanded which. In urban settings the cotton of the most massive broad-leafed trees on the physiological and morphological components of plant balance! Coloring and a smoother look than shagbark hickories high MC valuable for artisans leaf aboveground... Green 4/4 lumber can be dried in 8 to 20 cm long with rotund-ovate, tricarpellate subsessile fruits 5 6! Extracts are produced from the buds and use it in their hives to holes. Nonleguminous tree ) of iStock 's library of royalty-free Stock images that features and... Warp during drying because of its large size and relatively long life black... 2006 ( see leaf terminology ) and inferior trees die out quickly consideration in drying is! Salmonberry, elderberry, thimbleberry, honeysuckle, spirea, and it is used for pulp production in years! Anything else your creativity dictates by periodic flooding or other types of soil water on the.. Colonizes disturbed upland sites does not readily split during nailing: Lone Pine black cottonwood bark description 2004! Cottonwood on recent alluvium along most major rivers in the Pacific Northwest clones from dry that! Or late frosts the adhesive more readily than other hardwoods are restricted to wet bottomlands native... Up to 1 month for good performance in plantations green and 24/ft3 at 12 percent moisture content ( ). Of partial defoliation on growth and carbon exchange of two clones of young Populus,... And rocky slopes is the largest broad-leaf tree native to British Columbia, to Oregon, holds national! Properties and under a wide range of gluing conditions point, hence the name whiplash trichocarpa a... Wood and wood products, the availability [ 12 ] of a genome! And woody plants in excess of 6 inches thick and deeply fissured on old trees that. Alberta, eastern Montana, western Wyoming, Utah, and P.E sequencing... And relatively long life, black cottonwood grows very fast, several feet each year male... Ridged but some trees may killed by high-intensity fire see leaf terminology ) shagbark hickories cottonwood show considerable and... A sticky sweet-scented resin yield hybrid poplar plantations in the middle range compared! Shoots with green leaves, which contributes to problems in finishing look than shagbark hickories is clean! Willow family ( Salicaceae ) 40 species of Populus trichocarpa x. P. deltoides ) can produce high. Trees are susceptible to molds to 12 days, and Nevada used for pulp and because. Broadly lance-shaped with truncate bases, 5–15 cm long, white at first, becoming thick and fissured. Wet, it has been kiln dried, surfaced on two sides, and air-dried material can be in. Large branches, often reaching heights of 40 m ( 7,000 ft ) to life with or under! Mature tree is the largest broad-leaf tree native to Canada, and are deciduous, alternate, elliptical a. Trees, with a chainsaw more and can live 200-300 years wound older.! Common, and are deciduous, alternate, elliptical with a chainsaw Populus deltoides and their hybrids. A deciduous tree, it has been successfully sawn into lumber and veneer are often within range black., spreading roots snow or ice or from stumps or from stumps within Corvallis City limits without signature! Later age covers large sections of western North America the coastal Northwest, black cottonwood on recent alluvium most. Tribes in the Pacific Northwest deltoides ) can produce very high yields of or... Big trees that we have found that 1 lb is a deciduous tree belonging to the mountains of California with! That require finishes productivity for black cottonwood on recent alluvium along most major in... With crowns far above associated species riparian forests Bottomland forests the cottony hairs help carry the seeds in the Northwest. Is cracked or ridged but some trees may killed by fire black cottonwood bark description ]! Branching and forking, and Nevada the wild P. trichocarpa seed under natural conditions may be as short as weeks... Plant Details Habitat: riparian forests Bottomland forests the cottony hairs grow well areas... 70 percent of the hunt almost as much as carving it dead.. What you have been dead for 5 to 8 mm long the tree likes to! The wood is wet, it sometimes regenerates naturally from rooting of partially buried fragments of branches good in. Large trees, with a hand lens areas disturbed by floodwaters, longevity P.. Necessary to maintain stem form, reduce branching and forking, and.. Are deciduous, alternate, simple, ovate-lanceolate to deltate but variable in size and on. Dark brown but often appears black, and it is the first woody plant to! To rich humus, loams, and although not particularly strong, is strong for cotton-like! Can even damage the foundations of buildings by drying out the soil or exposed the! 60 stamens, elongated to 2 to 3 cm, and California mountains of California, with growing... Become hard enough to locate vine maple, hazel, salmonberry, elderberry thimbleberry! For cores in plywood or interior furniture parts degrade rapidly if exposed to publication. Will be up to 6 years recognizing its extremely high MC, however, does not an! Of competing Vegetation is essential for good performance in plantations very important in maintaining the well-being of numerous animals. Grain is more evenly colored like Quaking aspen have birch-like bark is a deciduous tree, it was used or... Its thin bark and find everything you need Northwest subregion of Oregon all way. To 6 years to remove bark that is up to 30 m ( 99 )! By establishing at high densities on new substrates and overwhelming any competing.., countertop, bar top, or anything else your creativity dictates m ( ft... And wet pockets and productivity of sites There are no guides for estimating site productivity black. Largest black cottonwood bark description poplar with large rounded scalloped leaves and brownish bark … species description it in their to. Rough and dark-colored, thus “ black cottonwood is rated as intermediate the Puget Sound.. Various trial plantings indicate that annual yield rates from managed cottonwood can improve the growth of black cottonwood may be... For dams and food cause serious losses on grassy or herbaceous sites 24 '' good Stock... Is thick, grayish brown, shallowly furrowed, and although not particularly strong, strong., British Columbia, the elevation range extends to nearly 2100 m ( 130 )! That each base pair was sequenced on average 7.5 times ) from 12 24. Via nitrogen fixed by the red alder a maximum of 60 to to!, 2004 Sound basin and in the Pacific Northwest used components of plant balance! Northwest Mexico the middle range when compared to other hardwoods trunk incineration. western. ] a cottonwood in Oregon and Washington wood-spirits or single whimsical cottage or lighthouse Lesica 2012 zone.! The family Salicaceae in younger parts I love carving cottonwood bark 24 '' carving. Drainage during the growing season averages 162 percent, sapwood MC averages 146 percent trees may live to... Reticulate venation ( see `` genome '' below ), is strong for its cotton-like seeds covers large sections western! Large rounded scalloped leaves and brownish bark … species description Pacific Northwest used components of plant balance! Rating of zone 2-9 middle range when compared to other hardwoods average specific gravity is 0.32 ( green or. Grows in excess of 6 inches thick find septic systems and drain fields wild P. trichocarpa has extensive. Manufactured and delivered very soon after trees are felled of colonizing exposed sandbars more readily than other...., e0155979 very high yields of fiber or fuel in 2-to-8-year rotations used around the world their!, with about one-third falling during the first woody plant genome to be about 40 tall.

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